By Carla Barstow, DVM*, Robyn R. Wilborn, DVM, MS, Aime K. Johnson, DVM, 2018


  • A thorough physical examination done at the beginning of a bitch’s breeding career may help identify any abnormalities that may cause a problem in the future.
  • Obtaining an accurate history is important to guide diagnostic testing and future breeding management.
  • Interpret diagnostic results with respect to the patient. Results should be examined as a whole and not as individual parts.

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